This topic includes information related to colored concrete finishing of cast in place concrete during construction. Colored concrete finishing is achieved by broadcasting and working in a dry color pigment to the surface of hardening concrete, prior to other finishing processes. Colored concrete finishes are often combine with stamped concrete finishing and exposed aggregate concrete finishing.
03 30 00 Cast-In-Place Concrete
The concrete slab-on-grade is an economical and durable structure, suitable for a variety of floors and foundations. The slabs are usually reinforced, and various types of joints are used to control cracking due to shrinkage of the concrete. The tendency to shrink also leads to curling (distortion of a slab in a curved shape), primarily at the joints and at the slab's perimeter, but good choices and practices will minimize this problem. Vapor barriers and sheets of polystyrene for insulation can be installed between the slab and the grade.
This topic includes information related to structural concrete that is cast in place during construction. Structural concrete, which is composed of a mixture of cement, aggregate, water and admixtures, has a dull, gray color with a rough texture. It is commonly concealed behind interior finishes. Structural concrete is reinforced with steel and can be cast in place as a beam, column, girder, joist, slab or other structural member. Various types of structural concrete include; heavyweight, lightweight, shrinkage compensating, high performance and self compacting.
This topic includes information related to architectural concrete that is cast in place during construction. Architectural concrete, which is composed of a mixture of cement, aggregate, water and admixtures, is an exposed concrete that has an aesthetically pleasing, finished appearance. Architectural concrete appearance is achieved with special forms, finishing methods and special, mixture, components. Various types of architectural concrete include; heavyweight and lightweight.
This topic includes information related to exposed aggregate concrete finishing of cast in place concrete during construction. Exposed aggregate concrete finishing is achieved by adding aggregates to concrete batch mix, the surface of the cast in place concrete is removed and in some cases the concrete surface is polished.
This topic includes information related to stamped concrete finishing of cast in place concrete during construction. Stamped concrete is achieved by applying an embossed skin, random interlocking or patterned mat to the surface of hardening concrete. The skin or mat imprints a desired pattern that resembles brick, slate, flagstone, cobblestone, tile and wood finished surfaces. Stamped concrete finishes are often blended with colored concrete finishing and exposed aggregate concrete finishing.
This topic includes information related to underwater concrete placed during construction. Underwater concrete is placed using a tremie, a vertical pipe with a funnel shaped top. Mixtures for underwater concrete are designed for a continuous pour and prevention of cement washout. Additives are used in conjunction with cement and aggregate to increase underwater concrete strength.
This topic includes information related to concrete finishing of cast in place concrete during construction. Concrete finishing is the application of a specific additive, stamp, stencil or tool on a hardening concrete surface, to achieve a desired surface appearance or finish material characteristic. Common finishes include; leveling, floating, troweling, stamping, stenciling, brooming, rock salting, sealing and hardening. Specific types of concrete finishes include; high tolerance, heavy duty, colored, exposed aggregate, grooved, tooled and stamped.
There are several Specialty, or non-traditional, methods of Placing Concrete. These methods can offer economic advantages in terms of site preparation, the need for accessories and equipment, and reduced labor costs. Properly applied, Shotcrete, a sprayed concrete, is a durable construction material that bonds strongly with earth, rock, steel and existing concrete. Shotcrete is easily applied, its formwork assemblies are often simpler than in conventional placement, and less material is used, since the layers of sprayed concrete are thinner. Pumped Concrete and Pneumatically Placed Concrete also involve the delivery of concrete as a spray from either a dry or wet mix. Both methods utilize pumps, primarily the mechanical type for the pumped concrete, whereas pneumatic placement uses compressed air. For sites that are difficult to access, or at which space is limited, these methods are practical alternatives to conventional concrete placement.
This topic includes information related to shotcrete placed during construction. Shotcrete is a wet premixed concrete that is cast onto vertical and overhead surfaces by a compressed air hose. Shotcrete does not require formwork and can be reinforced with steel rods, mesh or fibers.
This topic includes information related to the curing of concrete installed during construction. Concrete curing occurs after concrete is placed, when moisture content and temperature is controlled to ensure the pours quality and strength. Curing methods vary depending on the type of pour, location and weather. Several types exist; liquid membrane, polyethylene sheets, burlap, straw, hay, sand and water.