This topic includes information related to epoxy grouting used during construction. Epoxy grout is a stable volume grout used between ceramic, porcelain and quarry tile. The material is impervious to water, stains and chemical reactions.
This topic includes information related to concrete cutting performed during construction. Concrete cutting is the action of cutting or sawing a cured concrete form with a powered concrete saw. Powered concrete saws use gasoline, hydraulic, pneumatic or electrical motors. Powered concrete saw types include: flat, track mounted, wire, hand or chain.
This topic includes information related to concrete boring performed during construction. Concrete boring is the action of boring or drilling a cured concrete form with a powered concrete auger or drill. Holes in concrete slabs, walls or floors are often required for the passage of electrical, plumbing and HVAC equipment.
Reinforcing Steel (Rebar) embedded in concrete provides the necessary resistance to stresses which arise from flexing and bending, allowing reinforced concrete to be used in many applications in the construction industry. Concrete has excellent compressive strength, but it is weak in tension. Reinforcing steel has excellent tensile strength but must be held in place to be effective. Thus, steel reinforced concrete provides a strong structural material or composite that can be aesthetically pleasing, economical, reliable, and durable. Fabricated from carbon steels with high yield strengths, the rebar is also ductile. The coefficients of thermal expansion of concrete and carbon steel are similar, so that internal stresses due to expansion and contraction are minimized. The concrete bonds strongly to the surface of the steel so that stresses are transferred efficiently from the concrete to the rebar. This composite is now widely used for the construction of concrete slabs, concrete walls, concrete beams, concrete columns, elevated concrete floors, and concrete footings and foundations. In the concrete, the rebar is contained in an alkaline environment and a passive film of iron oxide is formed, protecting the steel from corrosion. However, this protection is lost if the concrete structure is exposed to seawater or deicing salts. In these conditions, galvanized (zinc-coated) or epoxy-coated rebar must be used to realize the expected durability for the reinforced concrete.
This topic includes information related to concrete finishing of cast in place concrete during construction. Concrete finishing is the application of a specific additive, stamp, stencil or tool on a hardening concrete surface, to achieve a desired surface appearance or finish material characteristic. Common finishes include; leveling, floating, troweling, stamping, stenciling, brooming, rock salting, sealing and hardening. Specific types of concrete finishes include; high tolerance, heavy duty, colored, exposed aggregate, grooved, tooled and stamped.
There are several Specialty, or non-traditional, methods of Placing Concrete. These methods can offer economic advantages in terms of site preparation, the need for accessories and equipment, and reduced labor costs. Properly applied, Shotcrete, a sprayed concrete, is a durable construction material that bonds strongly with earth, rock, steel and existing concrete. Shotcrete is easily applied, its formwork assemblies are often simpler than in conventional placement, and less material is used, since the layers of sprayed concrete are thinner. Pumped Concrete and Pneumatically Placed Concrete also involve the delivery of concrete as a spray from either a dry or wet mix. Both methods utilize pumps, primarily the mechanical type for the pumped concrete, whereas pneumatic placement uses compressed air. For sites that are difficult to access, or at which space is limited, these methods are practical alternatives to conventional concrete placement.
This topic includes information related to shotcrete placed during construction. Shotcrete is a wet premixed concrete that is cast onto vertical and overhead surfaces by a compressed air hose. Shotcrete does not require formwork and can be reinforced with steel rods, mesh or fibers.
This topic includes information related to the curing of concrete installed during construction. Concrete curing occurs after concrete is placed, when moisture content and temperature is controlled to ensure the pours quality and strength. Curing methods vary depending on the type of pour, location and weather. Several types exist; liquid membrane, polyethylene sheets, burlap, straw, hay, sand and water.